Golden Bison Tomato – A Review

Other Chicago gardeners will empathize with me when I say that waiting until August for tomatoes is a painful exercise in patience. I scan the tomato bounties for sale during every farmers market trip, angry that mine remain green on the vine back home. I can’t help but compare my progress to theirs. Every trip before August leaves me seething with envy! Since “green with envy” is not a good look, I bought some Golden Bison tomato seeds from Victory Seeds as a remedy.

Golden Bison tomatoes were developed by the North Dakota State University breeding program in 1932. They are a determinate variety that has been developed for the short growing season up north, as so are typically ready to harvest 59 days after being put into the ground. That makes Golden Bisons some of the most early maturing non-cherry tomatoes. There are Golden Bison plants in my garden. Two are in the raised bed and two are directly in the ground.

These plants were the first to produce fruit, which came in heavy clusters around mid June. Because of the amount of fruit produced, a cage was necessary for each plant. The plants themselves have grown to approximately four feet. The plants in the raised bed are a bit taller.

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Top row shows the most varied fruit shape-wise, while the bottom shows the most typical.

 

Each plant has been moderately resistant to disease. The Golden Bisons in the planter are the second most heavily affected variety by verticillium wilt, after the Yellow Pears. The plants directly in the ground have had less problems. I had to prune a few of the plants that had yellowed leaves, but the upkeep was much less intense than that of the plants in the raised bed.

The plants are still producing a tomato here and there, but the initial heavy flush has not been repeated. Nonetheless, each plant has been a remarkably heavy producer, with about 20, if not more, tomatoes on each. The fruits themselves have been moderately resistant to cracking, and have miniscule to no catfacing. A few fruits tend to drop from the plants after a rain or during a windy day, so I picked up fallen fruit once in the morning and once in the evening. The dropped fruit was not always ripe, but the plants did not drop any green tomatoes.

The fruits themselves are typically golf ball sized and shaped, but tend to get bigger. A few fruits grew to be tennis ball sized. They range in color from lemon yellow to goldenrod. A fruit will tend to have green shoulders when lemon yellow. The green shoulders will mostly disappear when the tomato is fully ripe, and turned goldenrod. The tomatoes have a thicker than typical skin. This skin is easily peeled when the tomato is ripe.

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Golden Bison tomatoes cut length-wise and width-wise.

 

Golden Bison tomatoes have a mild flavor, which is earthy at first, then very fruity. There are sweet notes throughout. The tomato is juicy, with thick walls and a thick inner core of pulp that does not have to be cut out. There are few seed chambers. The tomato meat disappears before the skin in one’s mouth, so you’re often left chewing on the skin. Overall. Golden Bison tomatoes have a good, simple flavor. I would recommend them for any gardener that enjoys yellow tomatoes early in the season.

Readers, are there any other early yellow tomatoes I should know about for next year?

Battling Tomato Wilt

Gardeners have often heard the importance of rotating vegetable crops during seasons. Rotate your crops! Your plants will drain the soil of needed nutrients otherwise! Rotate your crops! Your plants will become more vulnerable to disease otherwise! I have gardened with this maxim in the back of my head, but often have found the tasty homegrown tomato bounties’ siren songs too difficult to resist. And so, bucking common wisdom, I grew tomatoes in the same spot as tomatoes years past. Until this year, all was well. Tomato plants flourished in the same locations year after year.

Well, the time has come to atone for my gardening sins. How I rue my confidence now, thinking that a major disease could never strike my plants. Well, fusarium wilt, or verticillium wilt, came this year with a vengeance. I guess I was due for my lesson from Mother Nature.

Wilting Yellow Pear Tomatoes Disease
What bucking common wisdom will get you.

Both fusarium and verticillium wilt share many characteristics, making it difficult for a gardener to distinguish between the two. Both are soil-borne fungi, so the disease travels from the roots of the plant through the stem. [1] , [2]  Both brown the vascular tissue of the tomato plant, and choking the leaves off from nutrients from the soil. These leaves yellow, then brown, and then die. Individual plants are affected, with symptoms appearing when the plant begins to set fruit.

Fusarium and veticillium are distinguished from each other based on their ranges and based on how quickly the plant succumbs to the fungus. Fusarium wilt is much more common in the southern range of the United States. Veticillum wilt is common in the north, so much more than Fusarium wilt that the University of Illinois Extension office only has a website on the former. [3] The streaking that accompanies verticillium wilt is lighter than that of fusarium wilt and typically does not extend all the way up the stem. Veticilum wilt also proceeds more slowly.

photo of yellow pear with streak in leaf stem
Dark vascular streaking on Yellow Pear stem.)

There is no easy solution for either fungus. Instead, crop rotation and disease management is the only way to control the spread. This year, I have pruned the first foot of each tomato plant of foliage and have cut back watering to every other day. Without those lower leaves, the tomatoes have more airflow close to the ground.  Also, the drier soil prevents the fungus from spreading. Finally, in desperation, I have also treated each tomato with powdered copper fungicide below the fruiting level. This is risky because the plant is also in danger of being damaged by the fungicide and the copper never leaves the soil (it is a heavy metal after all). [4] I have also pruned all diseased leaves from affected plants on a weekly basis.

Kims Civil War Oxheart Tomatoes
Pruning foliage has the added benefit of giant tomatoes!

 

My efforts seem to have stymied the spread of the disease in all of the tomato plants but the Yellow Pears. Yellow Pears are my mother’s favorite variety of homegrown tomato, and so she has been particularly disappointed with this year’s crop. I have grown the variety for her before and never had any problems with them.  Foolhardily, I only planted one Yellow Pear this year. Well, Mother Nature, I have learned my lesson.  Next year I will take heed of old gardening wisdom and rotate my tomato crop!

Why have we lagged on posting? Beets me!

Much like every summer before this one, time has gotten away from us. Fun trips, graduations, intramural sports… they make the summer. People are more social and pleasant during the summer.  In general life just seems so much easier. So here we are. Finally at the end of July, Capt Capsicum and I have a weekend free from social obligations. Time do to some relaxing. And of course, some seriously overdue weeding and harvesting in the garden. Last week, we pulled up the remainder of the beets we had sowed in the spring. The particular variety we were growing come from Poland and are called the “Okragly Ciemnoczerwony” Beet. This means “round dark red” beet. And it certainly lives up to the name.

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A small snapshot of the okragly ciemnoczerwony beets

As so many Chicagoans, I am Polish. I remember being young and getting forced to go to polish school on weekends. I remember the May 3rd parades on Belmont Ave celebrating Polish Constitution Day. I remember midnight mass on Christmas. And I cannot forget all the beets I used to eat. As a kid, I was a picky eater and neither parents have ever been very passionate cooks. Beets were consumed in two ways. Borsch (barszcz) or buraki ćwikłowe — a boiled grated beets with horseradish. And while I absolutely love barszcz, I hate hate hate buraki cwiklowe. Suffice it to say, it was a long time after I left home until I was ready to eat beets again.

And what better way to get back into a food you used to hate as an eight year old picky eater, than to grow it yourself? That’s what I was thinking when I was browsing seed catalogs this winter and looking at all the beautiful photos. I ended up choosing a Polish variety, the okragly ciemnoczerwony, because it seemed like the most poetic option given my history. Fast forward to the early spring, just as I was getting ready to cast the packet of seeds aside, Capt Capsicum planted two long rows when I wasn’t looking! I am so glad he did because these beets are beautiful.

The Okragly Ciemnoczerwony variety is smooth a deep dark variety that is astoundingly free of blemishes and perfectly beet-shaped when picked at the right time (one of ours also got freaky big). Like all other beets, these are a cool weather crop that is easy to take care of. We planted ours kind of late, but before these past two weeks, summer was pretty cool. We were careful to stay on top of our seedling thinning so that we had 4 or more inches between each plant.  It was a truly no fuss growing operation. Just as the heads were visibly sticking out from the soil, we pulled them and ate.

Chopped_okragly_ciemnoczerwony_beet
Big cziemnoczerwony beet before being cubed and roasted

Our cooking method was equally low fuss. We ended up using one of my favorite cook’s, Ina Garten’s, recipes for roasted beets.  It went well with some roasted chicken drumsticks spiced with paprika, and a few blanched garden green beans as well.

Don’t you love in the summer when you don’t buy any produce? Do you guys eat beet greens? How do you prepare them? What kind of beets do you grow?

They cannot be contained (except when they can…)

Hello to our fellow denizens of the soil, tenders of the garden! Our plants are loving this weather and are growing with purpose, enjoying these temperatures and humidity far more than I am, where the sun and the temperatures provide a persuasive reason for staying in the shade and air conditioning. Not even the hot weather has been able to keep us away from our burgeoning harvest, as we have been able to pick peas and radishes, cut garlic scapes, and tend to the beds to ensure the plants, especially the finicky peppers, can grow as much as they can during these stretches of ideal weather.

In addition to our beds, we are growing plants in containers. We have several, which adds an extra dimension to what is already a challenging enough pursuit. Unlike a garden bed, you do not have as much control over the environmental variables you can expose your plants to nor do you have as many options for maintaining growth. Once it’s in a pot, it’s in a pot. About all you can do is water and fertilize it. You do not have the relative freedom provided by a bed: fewer ways to control moisture levels, limited space for roots to grow, better exposure to the environment. Containers do have one obvious advantage though. You can physically move them. Not getting enough sun or water? Maybe the other side of the deck is better. Not getting enough nutrients? All of that fertilizer is going to one plant.

container.garden.deck.jpg

The pros and cons of beds versus containers is one where the pros are firmly in favor of the bed, but you can still have success with a container. Living in rental apartments over the last few years has forced us to learn the best practices of container gardening, lest I end up empty handed. Other than large heirlooms, which I have given up all hope on successfully cultivating in a container, I’ve had varying levels of success. From an over wintered habanero to an especially precocious bell pepper plant, it is possible to have a good harvest even if it has to be done on your back porch or in your front window. Here are a few of the most important things I’ve noted from my attempts the last few years, bountiful and futile alike:

  1. Water. Unlike in a bed, where it’s hard to over water to the point of killing them because it’ll run off, if the pot is not well drained or in the sun, it’ll stay moist a lot longer than a bed will, meaning root rot is a distinct possibility. Only water when you are sure the dirt is completely dry or the plant has begun to wilt.
  2. Sunlight. This is one area where containers can be better than gardens. You have to work within the limitations of your space, but you can sometimes better accommodate the light needs of your plants because of the portability of pots.
  3. Fertilizer. This is a the toughest part and the lesson it took me the longest to learn. Even an unfertilized garden will have nutrients passing into the soil consistently from organic matter, worms, animals, and more entering the ecosystem. A pot is a relatively self-contained environment. Once the nutrients from the soil are gone, they’re gone and if your plants runs out of nutrients while it’s trying to fruit, you’ll be out of luck.
  4. Pot size. This is one case where bigger is better. Never underestimate the ability of a plant to grow roots. In a garden bed they’ll be able to go down as deep as they need, but in a container they’ll be constrained. Use as a big of a pot as you can manage to give your plant the most room to expand. Not to mention a bigger pot will hold more nutrients, decreasing the amount you need to fertilize.
  5. Optimism. Sometimes you just need to keep at it and hope for the best. Last year we had a black bell pepper that put out three delicious peppers by August and then nothing. We kept at it, watering and fertilizing regularly, and got another dozen peppers before the first frost.

Does anyone out there have any tips for container gardening? I’d love to be able to grow full-size heirloom tomatoes some year! Until next time!

I scape by with a little help from my friends — Garlic Scape Time

This weekend in Chicago is hot. Hot. Hot. Hot. After a lot of traveling around the country, we are finally back in Chicago and doing some much needed maintenance on the garden. It seems like everything is finally starting to take off and we are grateful for this truly hot week for the sake of the peppers.

In the meantime though, let’s talk about garlic. I’m in love with garlic. It is another plant that tastes remarkably different from what you would buy in the store. As hardneck types, these are the varieties waxed poetically about subtle differences that reflect regional soil and climate differences. Hardneck garlic (Allium sativum ssp. ophioscorodon) are closer to wild garlic and only keep for a few (8 – 10) months compared to the year plus softneck garlic you might see in a store. We planted several rows of cloves in two varieties (Sinnamahone and  Estonian Red) in late October 2016, and this week the scapes finally popped out.

Garlic Scapes Freshly Cut
Garlic Scapes Freshly Cut

Sinnamahone garlic is a variety we ordered off Baker Creek Heirloom Seed Co.  According to their description they got this garlic from an area near the Sinnamahone River in rural Pennsylvania, where a farmer said he got the seed from a Sannamahone Indian who lived in the backwoods near there. Supposedly,  because it is a beautiful Rocambole type, the flavor is supposed to be incredible. Rocambole garlic is renowned for its complex and full flavor. These hardneck types are often referred to as “true garlic flavor.”

Estonian Red garlic is a more mild variety from — you guessed it. Estonia. Although it is popular enough to often be grown in other Scandinavian countries as well. It is occasionally mistaken for elephant garlic (which is actually a type of leek), this has five or six huge cloves and is a hardneck purple stripe variety.

Because these are both hardneck varieties, they grow scapes. These spirals are the garlic flowers, and in order to encourage greater bulb size, we cut them off using a sterile knife every time we see them.  Cutting off the flower cues the plant to divert its energy from growing flowers  and producing seed, into creating a bigger bulb.  The sooner you cut them, the more tender they are.  And that’s great because the nice part about scapes is that you can also eat them.  Scapes taste mild and sweet, like chives or scallions, but with a hit of unmistakable garlicky flavor. I like to use a food processor and make a pesto out of them. Although I am not a pickler, friends who are have given me jars of scapes which I would add to bloody marys on game days in the fall.

Do you grow hardneck garlic? What varieties? What do you do with your scapes?

Sigaretta di Bergamo — Sweet and Skinny

We only have one of these seedlings this year because this is a pretty obscure sweet pepper and we do not want to invest our precious real estate until we know the sweet pepper is as delicious as it looks.  These peppers have a beautiful resemblance  to the pepperoncini type. They are very long, curled thin peppers that mature to a bright red color. Fruits are usually about 0.75″ in diameter and can grow up to 12″ or maybe even longer. The flesh is said to be thin. I am excited because because they are early maturing, compact, and very prolific. Great for our northern urban garden!

The name of this pepper translates to “Cigarette of Bergamo” or “Bergamo Cigar”. Bergamo is a small city in the Lombardy region of Northern Italy. It is not too far north of Milan.

Italian food itself is more regional than national, with people from different provinces eating vastly different food. What someone eats in Lombardy may be very different than what they eat in Sicily. Because there is a lot of cattle rearing in Lombardy, people tend to eat more more beef compared to Sicily’s seafood. Also, possibly because of the higher number of cows, dairy consumption of butter, cream, and cheese is higher than what you would find in other parts of Italy.

As for these peppers, because they tend to be rather small and sweet with a tiny kick, I plan on using them in salads and just pan fried or grilled whole. Because this pepper is supposed to be similar to a pepperoncini, and I cannot find much info on it, I think I will also have to adapt some pepperoncini recipes and see how those go!

Sigaretta di Bergamo Seedling
Sigaretta di Bergamo Seedling Enjoying Some Sun

As for the seedling itself, it looks unique compared to our other peppers. Although small, it is incredibly busy already with several branches shooting off in different directions. The roots are now busting out of the bottom of the holes I drilled in the red plastic cups. The plant is begging to be put in the dirt, and I plan on obliging this weekend! I have scaled back on watering my peppers until their leaves begin to wilt and have been using a very diluted fish/seaweed based fertilizer. It seems to have had a great affect on the plants, all things considered. They are making quite the comeback and the root systems seem much more robust.

I cannot wait till harvest time late this summer, when we can start posting and experimenting with new recipes for these little known heirloom peppers. Do you guys have any ideas for how to eat these Sigaretta di Bergamo peppers? Maybe some old family recipes?

Until next time, Ciao peppers!

Thyme is not always on our side

I love thyme. It’s my favorite herb and I cook with it as much as I can. The distinctive strong aroma and bold taste means it easily stands on its own as the star of a dish but the flavor profile also blends well with many other herbs and seasonings from warm climates, creating beautiful medleys on the stove top and in the salad bowl.  I always have some on hand in the spice cabinet and when in doubt with what to add to a meal I’ll usually give it a few shakes of thyme.  The only problem is that the dried version is nowhere near as flavorful as the growing plant and much to my chagrin I can never seem to keep a thyme plant alive! We’ve tried to grow a thyme plant in a container the last few years and all have kicked the bucket on us. An attempt or two directly in the garden failed as well. This year, instead of leaving the fate of our new thyme plant up to fate and our incapable hands, I’ve done some research and aim for better success for our humble plant this year.

Growing Thyme

Our thyme plant will be a primarily indoor plant with some time spent outside during the summer months, so most of my planting plan is built around that.  Thyme originates from the Mediterranean region and likes a well drained soil on the sandier side.  In retrospect, this was our most common mistake, as we have planted it in potting soil designed to retain moisture as well as garden beds heavy on clay in the past.  This year, I’ve mixed some cactus soil (heavy on sand and perlite) with potting soil to create a more hospitable environment for our thyme plant.

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In addition to this, thyme requires mostly full to full sun to grow. Last year we had it on our back porch, which gets only a few hours of the morning sun. No wonder it died so quickly! Heavy potting soil and limited sunlight does not do a thyme good.  We will be keeping it in our front windows with the occasional trip up to our roof deck for the summer months. Hopefully the better sun and soil conditions will yield a healthy thyme plant whose leaves will impart their fragrance to our cooking this summer, instead of the usual dried out and dead mess we have by June.

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(Here it is in its new home! Hopefully the more spacious confines will give it space to fill out over the next few weeks.)

Anybody have any other tips for growing thyme or other herbs? We’d love to hear them! Also, if you have a favorite recipe featuring thyme please feel free to share! We always love trying out new recipes in the kitchen.

Late Starters and Slow Growers

Hello from rainy Chicago!  Hopefully the weather has been better wherever you’re reading this from.  It’s been stuck in the forties and fifties with intermittent rain and limited sun for a better part of the past week and will remain that way for at least another day or two.  Before this rain blew through we had discussed starting to move some of our more mature seedlings into the garden beds due to the unseasonably warm weather.  It hasn’t dipped below freezing, but with the way the forecast looks for the foreseeable future I’m glad we didn’t take the leap.  I don’t imagine the young plants would weather (pun intended) this deluge of rain very well. The silver lining of this particular weather pattern has that its been cold enough for our radiators to be back on, making it ideal for seed germination! I had desire the other week to try to sneak in a Serrano plant or two yet this year (they’re one of my favorite chilies to cook with) despite how close we are getting to the main growing season starting. Lucky for us, even though the temperature outside is not ideal for growing, it is inside is for seed starting! We also nabbed a few small seedlings from the local garden store (at $1.49 for four how could we not?) that still need some growing up before being transplanted.

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Pictured above is our last few pepper varieties we’re going to try and grow this year. The seedlings are Poblano and Melrose peppers; the seed packets contain the seeds of serrano and pasilla baijo peppers.

Poblanos hail from the Puebla state of Mexico and are mildly hot, usually somewhere between bell and jalepeno peppers, and are a very versatile pepper.  We use them a lot for fajitas and other meals heavy on bell peppers to give it a little extra heat without changing the flavor profile of the dish.  When dried they are called ancho chilies, which is a common seasoning in Mexican cuisine.

Melrose Peppers actually originate in Chicago and are rarely found outside of the city, and accordingly, information on them is relatively hard to find.  Their name originates from the Chicagoland suburb Melrose Park and are a staple in the cooking of the Italian community here.  Neither of us are Italian, but both love the city and are looking forward to growing and trying them.

Serrano Peppers are also from the Puebla region of Mexico and are named for the highlands present in that part of the country (serrano means “mountainous” or “of the highlands” in Spanish). They are hotter than jalapenos and have a very bright taste that comes out well in salsas and richer dishes.  They are a favorite of mine to use in chili and sauces because they add a good amount of heat while imparting their own distinctive flavor on the recipe. Despite visiting numerous garden stores, and the large Hispanic population in Chicago, we were unable to find any seedlings, but I’m hoping we’ll be able to sneak in a few peppers at the end of the year.

The final packet is the best kind of seeds, free seeds! They are of the Pasilla Baijo variety, which is not one I had heard of previously.  Apparently, they are one of the main peppers in the dark version (mole negro) of mole sauce. I’m not sure what to expect from these, but I’m still excited to try them. One of the best parts about getting involved in the gardening this year is discovering all of the new peppers I’ll get to incorporate in my cooking this fall and this is another one to add to the list! Upping my sauce game.

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We’re out of seed starting pods, so I’ll be placing our serrano and pasilla baijo seeds in this empty hummus dish. I’ve soaked them overnight and hopefully that, along with the radiators, our new seed warming mat, and any hummus I didn’t manage to clean out of the container will speed these along enough to still get a good harvest.  Has anyone experimented with ways to speed up germination and early-stage growth?  I can’t imagine we’re the only procrastinators out there.  Until next time, cheers!

Let there be light. And lots of it – Troubleshooting Pepper Problems

Starting seedlings can be hard. Starting them during an insufferably grey spring in Chicago is even harder. I am still trying to revive my ostry cyklon peppers under some LED grow lights and while heat is one of the components, so is light. Perhaps even more so given that light emits energy which in turn produces heat. As an aside, I’m not taking any chances and germinating a few more seeds. Okay. So. How much light does one of our baby pepper seedlings need?

To start that discussion, we first need a concept of brightness and a unit of measurement for it. In comes the idea of  “lux”. A lux is a international scientific standard unit of measurement for illuminance and luminous emittance, equal to one lumen for a square meter. Whoa– maybe some vocab first?

  • LED – Light-emitting diode. It is speculated that led lights have the potential to offer greater efficiency, longer lifetimes and wavelength specificity. 
  • lumen – a unit of luminous flux in the International System of Units perceivable by a human, that is equal to the amount of light given out by a source of one candle intensity radiating equally every direction.
  • illuminance – the amount of light level measured on plane surface perceivable by the human eye. Correlates to human brightness perception. 
  • luminous emittance – the luminous flux per unit area emitted from a surface. (so how much bounces off). 
  • lux (lx) –  lumens per square meter. One lx = one lumen per square meter. 

As I understand it, the lux is the unit of measurement that answers the question “how many candles would have to be crammed into a square meter to produce equivalent brightness?” . Here are some examples for frame of reference when we start measuring around the house.

Common Lux Light Levels Observed In Nature Table
Recommended Light Levels (Illuminance) for Outdoor and Indoor Venues – National Optical Astronomy Observatory

For pepper seedlings we want to reproduce the equivalent of direct sunlight through most of the day for our peppers. Damn tropical plants. With that amount of brightness the chlorophyll in our plants’ leaves will have the best conditions for photosynthesis which in turn creates energy for plant growth.

But wait, lumens aren’t everything! Consider that when we talked about lumens, we discussed human perception of brightness. Not plants. Humans see more light on the yellow/ green wavelengths but plants utilize red/blue wavelengths which the human eye is poor at perceiving. Plants use prefer lights beginning at 450 nm (nanometers). 450 – 650 nm rays are required for plant photosynthesis, the production of food from light, water, carbon dioxide through the catalytic action of the plant pigment, chlorophyll. The 650 and 730 nm wavelengths control flowering through light-induced changes in the plant pigment, phytochrome.

Graph of visible light on the electro magnetic spectrum
http://tobyrsmith.github.io/Astro150/Tutorials/EM/

It is worth mentioning that there is currently some research being conducted where scientists are trying to determine what waves have what affects on plants. I was not able to find too much info on that.

electromagnetic_spectrum_and_peppers
The effects of light-emitting diode lighting on greenhouse plant growth and quality — Margit Olle & Akvile Virsile. Agricultural and Food Science, [S.l.], v. 22, n. 2, p. 223-234, june 2013. ISSN 1795-1895.
However, unfortunately, the measure for that Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) is not commonly advertised on those colored LED lights, so we will not be using it in this discussion. Hopefully, in the future this will be how we rate and describe grow lights.  But what little I found suggested that every wavelength plays its own special role in producing a healthy plant. So just defaulting to using lux doesn’t seem to be without merit.

So how bright are our overcast Chicago days rating? I downloaded a simple app on my phone to measure lux. Today was a partially cloudy day and the reader measured between 1,500 – 5,500 lux at 5:30 pm when I get home from work. Hovering my phone parallel to my led grow lamps, at about three inches away,

Fish pepper seedling under led grow light
Fish pepper in a seat of high honor.

I am reading about 100,000 – 114,000 lx. However, every inch I move away from the bulbs, my lux reading drops significantly. At six or so inches, I am lucky to get a reading of 14,000 lx. Given the strength of the LEDs and their consistency, the fact that I can keep them on for how long I see fit, I’m inclined to keep using them. I think it makes sense to put my most sensitive and beloved plants as close to the grow lights as possible. The remainder, I guess will go on the window sill and we pray for some sunny days.

I wish I had records for what the lux light level was like when I was at work. I have an extra RaspberryPi lying around and now am inspired to put together a light logger so I can have a better idea of what kind of suffering I am putting my seedlings through. What about you guys? Have you created any smart gardening tech tools to help you better understand the conditions of your plants? How much — if at all — do you utilize extra lights in your gardening?

Hopping for Joy

We’re taking a brief break from the string of hot pepper updates to diverge into the land of vining plants, specifically one that could be considered one of the most important plants cultivated by humans, humulus lupulus, the hop plant.  This humble flower is responsible for the beer we know and love today, as it’s bittering properties impart a distinctive flavor and aroma to the beverage. Its antiseptic properties allowed for the long distance transport of beer before refrigeration was commonplace. These plants are truly wondrous things. We will be paying tribute to the hop plant and all that its done for humanity by growing one ourselves this summer.  I’ve been a novice home brewer the last few years. As I’ve gained experience, found a better feel for the process, the ingredients, and how you get them all to fit together in a way that gives you the beer you want, I’ve started experimenting a bit more.  In the past few years, I have brewed almost exclusively from kits but have recently been growing out of them. My last batch was made from grain and it turned out pretty well.  It’ll be cool to give my own whole hops a spin and see how they impact the beer.  I might try and do a side by side with one batch made of hop pellets and the other of whole hop flowers.

cascadehop.jpg

This year we are growing two varieties of hops purchased live from a producer in Michigan. Most healthy is the “Newport”, a variety I’ve never heard of much less tried. Second, we are growing considerably more popular “Cascade” hop.  The Cascade is a good all-purpose hop with a high alpha and beta acid content (alpha acid is what gives beer the bitter flavor and beta is used for aroma). As one of the most popular hops in the United States, it gives many of our pale ales and India pale ales their distinctive bite. They’re pretty easy to grow, just needing lots of sunlight and water and a trellis to grow on (they are what’s called a “bining” plant, which means the branches climb in a tight helix shape as opposed to using tendrils like a vining plant). We are hoping the vines will be loaded with hops by the fall.  Has anyone else given hops a chance in their garden? Aspiring brewers with some stories or recipes using whole hops?  I’d love to hear about them! Looking forward to home brewed pale ale this fall after bringing in another harvest from the garden. Cheers!